Wednesday, 30 July 2014

Using YouTube to Learn Japanese

Learning Japanese from textbooks and articles on the internet are great but sometimes your brain isn't taking in the words and you need a change of pace. Watching and anime or dramas is good to give your brain something different but it's not exactly pushing you unless you're watching it without subtitles and really concentrating on learning the words.

Or you might just be an auditory learner rather than a visual learner and would prefer videos and audio tracks to books!

If that's the case there are a number of lessons on Youtube that are great for learning Japanese. There are lots that really aren't that great, but I've had a look through and picked some of the best videos and channels for beginners teaching themselves Japanese.


Fluent Japanese this is great for beginners, especially those who want grammar lessons. They have videos on readings Japanese, Japanese phrases, for complete beginners and beginners who have already learnt some Japanese. They've divided all their videos into various playlists which you can see here which makes it easy to find lessons you want to learn rather than trawling through their long updates list.

The reason I like this channel is because it explains things very clearly and simply, and has clear text on the screen rather than a person talking into a camera (which personally I find off-putting).

One problem is that the person who makes the videos has an American accent, which make associations like the pronunciation of "a" from "aunt" different if you speak British or Australian English. But that's a minor thing and it still gives you a good idea of pronunciation when watching the videos.

Here is an example of one of their videos which begins to show you how to read and pronunciate hiragana.



Learn Japanese with JapanesePop101.com is a channel that has more of a classroom feeling with a Japanese teacher showing you words and phrases with a white board or text on the screen. It is actually a really good substitute for beginners lessons if you're poor as it covers the basics in the exact same way every other Japanese teacher I've met does.

What's great is they've got a wider variety of lessons that's more vocabulary and phrase based (rather than grammar based). They have a number of lessons on learning Japanese through Japanese culture, learning Japanese using dramas, counters, and some basic kanji. You can see all of these on their playlists page here.

This is their first video that teaches you how to introduce yourself:



Tae Kim you may have heard this name before, Tae Kim's made a massive grammar guide for Japanese learners and is a very popular way for people to teach themselves Japanese. He doesn't have many videos but the ones he has uploaded focus on grammar, particles and learning hiragana and katakana, and they are fantastic! I really like the simplicity of the videos and how clear they are for new learning. He also doesn't waffle on like some videos I've found. He also has a great video on how to learn Japanese as a beginner.

Here is his first video on learning the Japanese alphabet to give you an example:



Japan Society NYC this channel is another classroom style with a Japanese teacher showing you vocabulary on a screen. The lessons are mixed mostly with activities and events this society holds and attends, so if you want just Japanese lessons it's best to use their Japanese Lessons Playlist.

I personally don't like these videos as much as the other but I think they might be suited to some people. They don't have much Japanese text on the screen as the lessons are mostly taught through a speak and repeat method. Like the video below:



As I mentioned all these videos are mostly for beginners, which is great as most advanced learners will have found their own ways to learn Japanese and are more likely to invest in Japanese teachers than specialise in advanced Japanese. If you are a more advanced learner there are some kind of useful videos on youtube but most of them are tips on learning Japanese rather than Japanese lessons like the above. I also found that most of the videos are of people giving their own experiences, so take from those what you will.

Such as this video which gives tips for intermediate and advanced learners:


Wednesday, 9 July 2014

Verb Groups - Beginners Japanese Grammar

Plain form is also called dictionary form and it is just like “masu” form but is used in casual, informal situations. Plain form is the present/future tense and is pretty important because you use this as a basis to create other verb forms (like past and negative).

You can practice all of these using the J-Talk Online Memrise course Beginners Japanese Grammar 1 (JLPT N5 Grammar). See last week's post on Studying Japanese Grammar for tips on ways to learn grammar.



But the first thing you need to know about plain form are the 3 groups.

Group 1 or “u verbs” 

These are words that have an “u” sound at the end. When you turn a “masu” form into plain form the “I” changes to the “u” for group 1 verbs. Such as the following.



いきます ikimasu  -> いく iku   = to go

あらいます araimasu -> あらう arau   = to wash

たちます tachimasu -> たつ tatsu   = to stand

はなします hanashimasu -> はなす hanasu   = to talk

かえります kaerimasu -> かえる kaeru   = to go home

はしります hashirimasu -> はしる hashiru   = to run


Group 2 or “ru verbs” 

This group can be distinguished by the “e” sound in “masu form”. To change it to plain you just remove the “masu” to make it into a stem and add “ru”. These verbs are easier because unlike Group 1 the stem doesn’t change at all.


たべます tabemasu -> たべる taberu   = to eat

しめます shimemasu -> しめる shimeru   = to shut
  
ねます nemasu -> ねる neru   = to sleep

いれます iremasu -> いれる ireru   = to put in

I mentioned that group 1 verbs can be recognised by the "i" before the "masu". There are a few group 2 verbs that have this pattern too, you just have to remember them and get used to using them as group 2 and not group 1 verbs:

います imasu - いる iru   = to be

かります karimasu -  かりる kariru   = to lend

おきます okimasu = おきる okiru   = to wake/get up


Group 3 (irregular verbs) 

There are only 2 verbs. They are irregular because they change differently from groups 1 and 2 

します shimasu -> する suru   = to do

きます kimasu -> くる kuru   = to come


As I said, these groups are particularly important to learn because each group changes differently depending on what you're turning the verb into. The following explains past tense and negative to illustrate these changes. Pay particular attention to group 1/U verbs as they change the most.

Wednesday, 2 July 2014

Studying Japanese Grammar

"I find it hard to learn Japanese Grammar"

In the past I've tried to explain basic Japanese sentence structure and introduced "masu" form, but I've not gone into much detail on how to learn these. That's difficult thing about Japanese grammar, you can't just read about it and expect to know it. There are hundreds of websites that explain grammar to you and tell you what you need to know for the various JLPT levels, but not much on how you learn that.

I guess to sum it up you just have to keep using it in different situations. But what's the best way to do this? Write a diary or a blog? Drill grammar over and over? How do you know if you're getting it right? Grammar is tricky because it seems so vauge and doesn't always have a 'direct' translation to English.

Hopefully the following tips and explanations will help.

As I said, you just have to keep using it in a mix of different situations, such as the following:

Flash cards programs - In particular Memrise, which is a great program, lets you have the ability to create your own flashcards which you can use to create your own drill sessions. Or you can use the J-Talk Online JLPT N5 grammar practice course. (N4 Grammar course coming soon)

Reading Textbooks - Textbooks will have grammar explained but also lots of example questions and segments of writing that will have the grammar in them. (For advice on textbooks I wrote a post on using Textbooks for Self Study)

Doing Japanese exercises - If you have a textbook with exercises or a workbook they will often have practice exercises you can do. (Try not to look at the textbook for reference and try to do it from memory). When you do exercises from a textbook/workbook do them on a separate piece of paper so you can do them again. Repetition of exercises will help enforce the grammar in your mind.

Using a teacher - If you don't understand how a textbook or someone online has explained a piece of grammar, asking a native Japanese teacher is the best way to understand as they can give you more examples and answer your questions quickly.

Using Lang-8 - This is a site where you can write things in other languages and natives will correct it for you (and in return you correct other's English). This is great if you're writing your own diary, using grammar and vocabulary etc, as you can see how a native person would write it and ask them questions directly. People will give you various answers and alternatives for a sentence in Japanese, and you have to remember they aren't teachers. But it's a great resource.

Coming up with sentences in your head (and/or saying them out loud) - If you're at school or work, just think about how you'd say something in Japanese randomly. Write it down or say it out loud, and then look it up online to see if you're right or not. You can do this anywhere and coming up with your own sentences is a great way to practice using the grammar rather than just reading about it. (And if you're not sure if you're right write it down and get someone on Lang-8 or a teacher etc to check it)

These are just a few tips. As Master Japanese says, it's important to do regular study and to keep a variety of how you learn. One of the best ways is role play, so if you have a teacher ask them to role play situations where you'd use grammar you learn, and try and do it regularly.

Do you have your own tips/advice for people learning grammar?
Do you have any requests or questions about learning grammar?
Feel free to leave comments and questions!

Wednesday, 25 June 2014

Japanese Sign Language - 手話

If you'd like to try something different but keep learning Japanese I strongly recommend shuwa (しゅわ・手話), Japanese sign language.

I've found learning Japanese sign language to be a really enjoyable experience, not only because it's fun to learn something new but learning it from Japanese people who use Japanese Sign Language (JSL) is also a fantastic experience. I find them to be incredibly friendly and outgoing people and you will often find some people wanting to learn foreign languages or about foreign culture. So if you're living in Japan and want to make some new friends I learn JSL.

It's actually surprisingly easy to learn sign language, and there are LOTS of videos on youtube to help you. The following are videos are ones I've found which give you a good start on the basics of Japanese sign language.

When watching these videos make sure you pay attention to which hands are doing what. You want to make sure your right hand is doing what their right hand is doing etc so that you don't get your signs mixed up and accidentally say something else.

Something good to know about Japanese sign language is it's structured the same as a Japanese sentences but without the particles! So 「ベールをのみたいです」"I want to drink beer" in sign language would be 「ベール」「のむ」「ほしい」 (ほしい being "want", the same as saying "のみたい").

Deaf Japan TV

This first video is a great one from Deaf Japan TV and shows you basic greetings, numbers, time, dates, some adjectives and other useful words, and even some sentences at the end.


Wednesday, 18 June 2014

Telephone Calls in Japanese

I find that in the day and age where we use email and texting all the time, using the phone can be a daunting experience. Even worse if it's in another language! The first time I talked on the phone was to a possible WWOOF (volunteering on farms in exchange for food and lodging) host family. I had the possible phrases I would need written in front of me with my Japanese teacher on stand-by. I was so nervous I probably sounded awful and rude! But I'm sure they understood my Japanese wasn't that great as a foreigner. Even so, it's useful to know the basics of talking on the phone in Japanese if you ever go to Japan for work or when staying with a host family.

Just like in English you will always speak in polite Japanese on the telephone, so there's lots of keigo used. (For other keigo posts see here.) But these phrases are still easy to learn because there's only one context you'd be using them in - on the phone. These are used when calling both businesses and someone's home.

There is also a list of essential vocabulary for beginners from the phrases at the bottom of this post.

A quick note, Japanese phone numbers are made up of 3 parts which look like this (XX) XXXX-XXXX. The first is the area code (cities and areas within Japan have their own codes not country code), and the second and last part is the person's number. The dash in the middle is said の "no" (so the phone number 1234-5678 would be いち、に、さん、よん、、ご、ろく、しち、はち)



Start of a Call
Hello? - もしもし (moshi moshi)

Who is this? - どなたですか? (donata desu ka?)

Is this the Tanaka residence? - たなかさんのおたくですか? (Tanaka-san no otaku desu ka?)

Yes, it is. - はい、そうです。(hai, sou desu)

Who is this please? - どちらさまですか?(dochira-sama desu ka?)

This is ____. - こちらは____です。(kochira wa ____ desu.)

May I talk to ____ please? - ____さんをおねがいします (___san wo onegaishimasu.)

Please wait a moment - ちょっとおまちください (chotto omachi kudasai)

I'm sorry to phone you so late at night. - やぶんおそくにすみません。(yabun osoku ni sumimasen)


Saturday, 14 June 2014

Japanese Textbooks for Teaching Yourself Japanese

"What text books should I use for teaching myself Japanese?"

Using text books to learn Japanese can be tricky business because they are often made for class studying rather than self study, but it doesn't mean they're not useful if you can't afford the time or money for classes.

First of all when studying Japanese it's good to know the answers to these questions: Why are you studying Japanese? What's your goal? It could be to read manga, watch anime without subtitles, to be able to read/speak it while on holiday or for a possible career. Your answer will mean that you need text books to focus on different things. If it's reading, you'll need a book that focuses on kanji and lots of reading practice. If it's for a job JLPT and business books are the best way to go as they give you clear goals with a certificate that shows your skills to employers.

Getting text books can become costly, so it's useful to know what you're getting and that's it's the right one for your goal and learning method. Japan Language Centre (Europe) and Amazon.co.uk are a great places for buying books within the UK at a reasonable price. For people in US there are more options for getting hold of Japanese books on Amazon.com and various Japanese stores across the country.

(Each textbook below is linked to sites where they are explained further either in a review or official website.)

Extra tips using texts:
If you do have a Japanese friend or teacher who can check your work and improve on your mistakes, that's always a great help too. Self-teaching while studying with a teacher will improve your Japanese much faster!


General Text Books for Beginners

I don't think beginners necessarily need work books because there are so many online resouces for them. But some people need direction, set structure and a clear goal and text books/work books can be really good for that. The following are 2 textbooks that I have used in the past (but in lessons not for self study). There is also Japanese for Busy People but I can't expand on that if I've never used them.

Genki - This series is written by mostly Japanese language teachers from Kansai Gaikokugo Daigaku (Kansai International Language University). There are 2 in the series and are made for beginners (JLPT N5-N4). They are well rounded books that tries to use speaking, reading, listening and writing. With 23 lessons covering 300 kanji and 1100 vocabulary and grammar. Exercises are written into the book so you don't have to buy an extra workbook (although there are workbooks useful for extra practice). Lessons are set up with a conversation (to be practised out loud) with a translation; vocabulary list; grammar; lots of practice exercises. It's designed so that you learn the vocabulary, grammar and kanji through use and comes with a CD for listening exercises as well as the conversation.

A great book for self study because of the exercises (if you don't write in the book you can do them over and over for more practice) and clearly laid out pages which makes it easy to work though. The most expensive, but worth it considering what you get from it.

Good for:

  • JLPT N5-N4
  • Reading, writing, listening, speaking
  • Practice
  • Steady pacing

Wednesday, 4 June 2014

Manga Japanese for Beginners

"I want to be able to read Japanese manga"

Japanese manga is great fun to read but can be pretty tricky for beginners who are studying Japanese. This is because a lot of the Japanese people learn is polite, where as the Japanese used is colloquial, and sometimes written with an accent, making it hard to understand and hard to look up certain words. Not only that but Japanese manga used a LOT of sound words which don't always translate to English. This post is a guide for beginners who want to read manga (and assumes you already know how to read the kanas).

In a previous post I talked about the advantages to learning Japanese using different forms of Popular Media. Manga is great for:

  • Reading practice (especially beginner and intermediate)
  • Learning Japanese culture
  • Informal Japanese
  • Onomatopoeias (Japanese has a huge selection of sound words used in everyday life) 
  • Variety of topics (can focus on areas you're studying)


The Basics - Informal Japanese Grammar

There are some key grammar points you need to know when you're reading manga in Japanese. The following 5 are, I think, the most common ones that turn up in manga that you need to be able to understand in order to understand what's going on. 

If you'd like to learn how to use these and write them yourself I will be making a Memrise course soon (and will link it here). But if you're just interesting in reading manga, it's important to recognise the following verb forms and their uses but not necessarily know how to make them (which is why the following is not a detailed explanation).

1. Plain form - Also know as 'Dictionary form' is the informal Japanese spoken on a daily basis. It's split into 3 groups which are important because depending on the group changes how the verb is turned into other forms like past, negative etc. (More on this in another post coming soon.)

Group I - "U" verbs
Group I verbs are also called "U" verbs by some people because the end of the word finishes in an "U" sound. When these verbs are turned into "masu" or polite form, the "u" becomes and "i" sound.

- to write  --> かます
はな - to speak  --> はなます
- to wait  --> まます
- to drink  --> のます

Group II - "Ru" verbs
These verbs are called "Ru" verbs because they end in "ru". Group II is easy because to change them you swap the "ru" for "masu" or "ta" (past) or "nai" (negative)

たべ - to eat  --> たべます
- to see  --> みます
おき - to get up  --> おきます

Group III - Irregular verbs
Group III only has the following 2 verbs and that's simply because they are irregular.

くる - to come  --> きます
する* - to do  --> します

*NOTE: in manga and colloquial Japanese する is often replaced by the infromal やる. (See the panel from Yotsuba-To! above)